A product classified by ABC rating that belongs to a centre group of products representing a medium part of the total sales value or production value or both or turnover value. Less concern is given to this category with regard to stock control and planning.
back letters are accompanying a contract for the purpose of stating rights and / or obligations for both contracting parties. This term is sometimes used if letters of indemnity are drawn up in case the condition of the goods in question give reason to remarks and, nevertheless, clean Bills of Lading are required by the shipper. Such letters are only allowed under exceptional circumstances.
|balance (in transport)|
A traffic flow of equal tonnage between two locations. Ideally, a loaded truck carrying goods from origin to destination would carry a full load on the trip back to its origin..
A code using a certain number of parallel bars of varying separation and thickness, which can be read optically by transverse scanning.
|bar code density / symbol density|
The maximum number of characters possible in a bar code within a linear unit of measure, is usually noted as characters per inch (cpi). The controlling factors are the width of the thinnest bar or space on the one hand and wide to narrow ratio on the other.
A method of encrypting data for fast and faultless readability. Bar codes are used to enhance timely and accurate transfer of data from printed medium to a computer system. Bar codes may represent letters or numbers or both.
|barge / lighter|
Flat bottomed cargo vessel with or without propulsion for canals, ports and rivers for the purpose of lightering large vessels and transporting goods.
A lot of a certain commodity like a component or a product that is treated, recognized and identified as one individual entity with respect to operations like handling, processing, purchasing, production, storage, transport.
The production process in which products / components are manufactured in batches and in which each separate batch comprises a number of identical products / components.
|bay (in containership)|
A vertical division in a container vessel from bow to stern, used for the identification of a stowage location for containers.
A plan which identifies and shows the locations of containers or other goods stowed in bays on the vessel.
|belly (in aircargo)|
The underfloor space of an aircraft.
A conveyor using a propelled belt for the medium to be carried. The belt is normally driven by a cylinder at one end, conducted over a free-rotating drum at the far end. The load-carrying portion of the belt is usually supported by free-spinning idlers or suitable scimming surfaces. This type of conveyors are mostly arranged for horizontal or slightly inclined travel, the slope angle depending on the characteristic of the goods to be conveyed and the roughness of belt surface.
A location in a harbour or port designed for mooring a vessel, often indicated by a number, code or name.
|bill of lading (B/L)|
A document evidencing a contract for the carriage of goods by sea and the receipt for loading of the consignment by the carrier The carrier undertakes the obligation to deliver the consignment against surrender of the bill of lading. The bill of lading has the following functions: 1. A receipt for a consignment, signed by a person duly authorized by the carrier and on its behalf 2. A document witnessing title to the goods therein described. 3. Evidence of the agreed terms and conditions of carriage.
This means that certain imported goods are stored under customs’ charge viz. customs seal either until the import duties due are paid or until re-export of the goods. E.g.: 1. Bonded goods, 2. Bonded store, 3. Bonded warehouse.
Place where imported goods can be placed securely under bond. A secure warehouse in which imported goods not yet inspected and cleared by customs are stored until all duties are paid or alternatively until these goods are re-exported or otherwise properly released.
Written confirmation by a carrier that space for transportation of a consignment has been reserved.
A facility, function, work station, department, etc., that impedes: - In production, e.g. a machine, work centre, or delivery station where jobs or parts arrive at a higher rate than can be processed. - Performance, e.g. a storage facility or distribution centre where parts arrive at a higher rate than the facility is able to transport or store, thus causing unwanted and sometimes unacceptable stock-piling.
A box-shaped pallet with a lid or without, enclosed on at least three sides by a superstructure of fixed, dismountable or collapsible, vertical sides; either solid, slatted or mesh, commonly permitting stacking.
|break-even weight (in aircargo)|
The weight level at which charging the lower freight-rate for the next weightbreak above, multiplied by the lowest weight indicated, rather than to charge the rate for the actual (lower) weight of the shipment (cargo).
Unpacked homogeneous mass of cargo carried loose in a certain tank or hold of a vessel, e.g. crude oil or grain.
Single deck vessel designed specifically to carry homogeneous unpacked non-liquid cargoes such as grain, ore, or coal.
Transport container designed for the transport of free-flowing dry goods, with loading hatchways in the top of the container and discharge hatchways at one end or on one or both sides of the container.
|bulk load (BL)|
Shipment with a gross weight in excess of 1000 kilos. Bulk loads are treated as direct loads.
A series of business branches which succeed one another in the production process of a particular product. This series starts with the raw materials producers, continuing with producers of semi-finished goods and / or producers of finished goods and ends with the product’s retailers.
1. Logistics within a given business system. 2. For the control and execution of the flow of products starting at development and purchasing through production, testing and distribution until the product reaches the final customer. It comprises the organization and planning. The aim is to satisfy the market requirements at minimum costs and capital use.
A product resulting as residual part from the main manufacturing process. By-products often occur in process industries like oil refineries and in the chemical industry where production of primary products also provides other products at interim stages.